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Vol 19, No 1 (2016)

Articles
Problems in the diagnosis of dysplastic melanocytic nevi
Salamova I.V., Mordovtseva V.V.
Abstract
The dysplastic nevus is a special type of melanocytic nevi, which is a clinical and morphological marker of increased risk for the development of cutaneous melanoma. Therefore, correct diagnosis and preventive oncological screening of patients in selected risk groups are necessary. Epidemiology and current classification of dysplastic nevi, as well as the problem of clinical and morphological correlation of findings in the differential diagnosis of dysplastic nevi are discussed. Related personal research data are presented.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):4-6
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Sequencing methods in dermatology
Aksenenko M.B., Ruksha T.G.
Abstract
Review of the literature devoted to the application of sequencing methods (genome research method) at various dermatological diseases. DNA sequencing technology is described in the article. Sanger Sequencing Method and Next-Generation Sequencing are discussed. Examples of genes and mutations found by sequencing methods are presented. Clinical meaning of mutations in BRAF, NRAS, KIT, GNAQ, GNA11 genes that play an important role in the pathogenesis of different clinical pathological forms of melanoma is described. Reveling tumor subtypes provides a selective approach in treatment of cutaneous melanoma, that can be useful in different therapeutic methods and makes it possible to predict the development of chemoresistance. Furthermore, data about another genes, that play an important role in pathogenesis of different dermatological diseases with tumor and non-tumor genesis are presented.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):7-12
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Cellular and humoral components of the immune system of the skin
Makhneva N.V.
Abstract
Along with mucous membranes the skin as the main barrier to the outside world creates a system of protection against any influences of the world. It is not only the place of realization of immunological processes, but it also actively participates in them due to the existence of its own elements of the immune system which are able to actively participate in the development of inflammatory reactions and neoplastic processes. Skin cells interact with cells of the immune system by setting a direct contact or by secreting a number of soluble factors, called cytokines, and other protein components such as proteins of the complement system. The general concept of skin-associated lymphoid tissue and skin’s immune system with immunocompetent cells in the epidermis and dermis, for cooperation of which in various stages of the immune response requires identity concerning anti-genes of HLA system, is presented in the review. Thus, specific immunological reaction with antibody formation promote the release of antigen from the body of both exogenous and endogenous origin. However, at violation of any element of immunological protection there is a delay of antigen elimination process, that results in own tissue structural damage. Interaction with foreign antigens (physical, chemical, infectious, etc.), denaturation of its own proteins or disclosure of tissue structures (antigens), that did not contact with immunocompetent cells, promote the formation of autoantigens and the production of autoantibodies against them. Thus, skin is a highly organized structure with a network of immunocompetent cells and soluble mediators. Introduction of molecular and biological methods as a knowledge tool is continually expanding the information about the skin as an organ of the immune system. The gained knowledge will definitely promote the development of new therapeutic approaches to skin diseases.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):12-17
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Porphyria cutanea tarda concomitant with chronic hepatitis C
Teplyuk N.P., Vertieva E.Y., Ignatyev D.V., Dzhavakhishvili I.S.
Abstract
Porphyrias form a group of rare metabolic diseases associated with disorders in the heme biosynthesis enzymes, leading to porphyrin accumulation in tissues. The disease is rare and is often diagnosed too late. The most incident is porphyria cutanea tarda. All patients with this condition should be tested for viral hepatites and hemochromatosis. A clinical case is presented: a patient with porphyria cutanea tarda associated with alcohol abuse and viral hepatitis C.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):17-20
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Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lassueur syndrome
Mesnyankina O.A., Yanchevskaya E.Y., Volik A.P., Dumchenko V.V., Butyrina E.V.
Abstract
A clinical case of Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lassueur syndrome characterized by combination of follicular keratotic rash (lichen ruberfollicularis) with a cicatricial alopecia on the scalp and non-cicatricial hair loss of the pubis and axillae is presented in the article. In spite of considerable prevalence of genetic and non genetic lichenoid dermatoses Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lassueur syndrome presents certain difficulties and requires careful attention of clinicians.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):21-23
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Hydradenitis suppurativa: etiology, pathogenesis and treatment
Masyukova S.A., Mordovtseva V.V., Ilina I.V., Sanakoeva E.G., Alieva Z.A., Grebenyuk D.V., Sokolova Y.P.
Abstract
Hydradenitis suppurativa is a multifactorial disease. The pathogenesis has not been well studied yet. The views about antecedence of lesions of structural elements of the skin are disputable and that is what determines the actuality of scientific studies in this field. The article presents literature review on modern data regarding prevalence and etiology of the disease. The classification of clinical features and Satorius score for quantitating the severity of the disease, the methods of diagnosis (bacteriological, immunopathological and etc.) are suggested. The role of the genetic, comorbid factors, metabolic and hormonal disorders and the immune system part in the development of the disease are discussed. Topical and systemic medications with the primary purpose of reducing bacterial load, elimination offollicular occlusion, normalization of immune response, correction of hormonal status, improvement of skin defects healing, pain syndrome removal, improving the quality of life ofpatients, are suggested for the therapy.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):23-26
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The idiopathic form of Sweet's syndrome
Olisova O.Y., Grabovskaya O.V., Teplyuk N.P., Grekova E.V., Ignatieva K.V.
Abstract
A clinical case of Sweet’s syndrome (dermatosis neutrophilica febrilis acuta) in a 59-year old man is presented. The data about etiology, pathogenesis and clinical picture are summarized. Difficulties in diagnosis of the disease are described. Sweet’s syndrome is characterized by skin lesions with marked neutrophilic infiltration. The syndrome manifests itself as a rash ofpainful red papules, plaxes, intradermal nodes on the head, neck and hands, multiple ostiofolliculitis. It is also characterized by fever, leukocytosis, arthralgias, episcleritis. Approximately 15% of cases are paraneoplastic. Patergiya can be seen in patients. It is a skin condition, characterized by lesions due to minor injuries. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical, physical, laboratory examinations and histological changes. The differential diagnosis should be made with exudative erythema multiforme, allergic vasculitis, erythema elevatum diutinum and erythema nodosum.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):27-31
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Immunofluorescence diagnosis and analysis of samples of its images in autoimmune pemphigus
Dovganich A.A., Nasonov A.V., Krylov A.S., Makhneva N.V.
Abstract
Autoimmune Pemphigus is a group of autoimmune bullous dermatosis characterized by intraepithelial blister formation and the presence of specific IgG-antibodies to the antigens of the intercellular bonding substance (MCC) stratified squamous epithelium. Specific immunomorphological picture (fixing IgG in MCC epidermis) allows to diagnose this bullous dermatosis. However, in some cases, during the use of this diagnostic method visualization of specific features is difficult because of the use of mild and/or non-uniform specific immunohistochemical reaction that prevents to diagnose pemphigus with absolute precision. The analysis of immunofluorescence diagnosis in autoimmune pemphigus was performed. Skin tissue image analysis algorithm is proposed. The algorithm performs image quality enhancement and detects inter-cell structures that are typical for pemphigus assessment. The algorithm consists of alignment illumination, median filtering, Gaussian filter processing, ridge detection using Hessian, image binarization, separation, for a ridge map, connected components and removing components with a small radius. In cases of doubt this allows to differentiate and diagnose autoimmune pemphigus. In addition, a clear visualization of character (granular or linear) fixing the immunoglobulin class G in the intercellular spaces of the epidermis increases the accuracy of the prediction of further disease progression (favorable or torpid) providing timely and appropriate management of the patient prescribing pathogenetic treatment regimens. This work emphasizes importance of introducing the modern computer methods of medical images, that allow significantly to improve the methods of diagnosis of human diseases, including autoimmune bullous dermatosis.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):31-35
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Diagnostic algorithm for psoriatic arthritis in clinical practice of dermatologist
Chamurlieva M.N., Korotaeva T.V., Loginova E.Y., Batkaev E.A.
Abstract
The study was carried out in 103 patients with psoriasis, who had the consultation of dermatologist and rheumatologist. Answers for 6 questions mPEST (Psoriasis Epydemiology Screening Tool) modified questionnaire were estimated, each positive answer corresponded to 1, PEST ≥ 3 was suggested the presence of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), PEST < 3 was considered the absence of PsA. All the patients were examined by rheumatologist, the gold standard was CASPAR (ClASsification criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis) criteria. If necessary the instrumental tests were performed: roentgenography, ultrasound examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and laboratory tests. At PEST ≥ 3 diagnosis of PsA was suspected in 60 (58.2%) of 103 patients. Diagnosis of PsA was confirmed by CASPAR criteria in 47 (45.6%) patients. mPEST less than 3 was in 43 (41.7%) of 103 patients. Diagnosis of PsA was absent by CASPAR criteria in 29 (67.4%) patients. Newly diagnosed PsA was in 32 (52.4%) of 61 patients. Any rheumatic disease, mainly PsA, can develop with psoriasis. mPEST questionnaire in most cases reveals PsA in early stage, however, its isolated use is insufficient to establish an accurate diagnosis, it requires a clear diagnostic algorithm of the disease, including consultation of rheumatologist, clinical and instrumental examination.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):36-40
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The choice of rational treatment regiments for different clinical variants of herpes infection
Olisova O.Y., Lukashov M.I., Pismennaya E.V.
Abstract
Depending on the clinical manifestations of patients with herpetic infection was administered differentiated therapy with the use of drugs of Valvir and Panavir. The results of the study showed that appropriate treatment of herpetic infections to spend for differentiated therapy depending on clinical course.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):41-44
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Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of vitiligo and methods for its correction
Gereykhanova L.G., Lomonosov K.M., Bashlakova K.A.
Abstract
One of the most studied theories about pathogenesis of vitiligo, the theory of biochemical disorders, where oxidative stress plays an important role, is presented. Changes of intercellular antioxidative status in combination with epidermal cells indicate to part of the oxidative stress in pathogenesis of vitiligo and allow to effect on process offree radical oxidation. These positive effects of antioxidants in the treatment of vitiligo confirm the theory of oxidative stress. The biological properties of ozone, that has a direct effect on peroxidation and antioxidant defense system of vitiligo are described.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):45-48
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Rationale for the treatment of dermatoses algorithm based on patient questionnaires
Vislobokov A.V., Khmelnitsky R.A.
Abstract
The interest in questionnaire methods in medicine is driven by the desire to find approaches to the assessment of the patient’s condition, allowing you to get the comprehensive view about the patient's attitude to prescribed therapy. Goal. To study the trust ofpatients with cutaneous pathology in the various methods and means of therapy depending on disease duration. Materials and methods. The study involved patients with different time course of dermatosis (less than 1 month; from 2 to 6 months from 6 to 24 months more than 24 months) divided into groups of 50 people each and 65 healthy people. All respondents voluntarily completed the questionnaire including questions about the credibility of therapeutic agents that are not drugs, and consent to use traditional and non-traditional methods and means of treatment. Results. The questionnaire found that if the dermatosis exists more than 1 month, then 100% of patients agree to use any means of treatment. A positive attitude to alternative methods of treatment increases over time of the disease, where the rank coefficient of correlation shows a direct correlation. Critical point of the flow of dermatoses, causing patients to look for any alternative methods of treatment is the period of time from 2 to 6 months. The level of patient's confidence to medication has remained consistently high and does not depend on the stages of the disease. Conclusion. Questionnaire method is simple and informative, it allows us to evaluate the patients opinion about the therapy and acceptable to develop algorithm of treatment of dermatological patients.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):48-52
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Expression proteaseinhibitors receptor PAR-2 on neutrophils peripheral blood of patients with atopic dermatitis and their relation with heat shock proteins HSP90
Elistratova I.V., Morozov S.G., Zakharova I.A.
Abstract
Expression ofprotease-activated receptors PAR-2 has been investigated on neutrophils isolated from atopic dermatitis patient peripheral blood and has been analyzed with index SCORAD. The simultaneous expression of both, PAR-2 receptors and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) was measured on neutrophils at the first week of acute phase of atopic dermatitis. Methods. Peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated on the Percoll gradient. Cells were stained with antibodies to PAR-2 receptor and HSP90 followed by the flow cytometry. Results. The PAR-2 receptors have been shown to be expressed on the plasma membrane of neutrophils obtained from patients with atopic dermatitis. The percentage of PAR-2+ neutrophils was positive correlated with diseases severity. HSP90 was found to be elevated simultaneously with PAR-2 receptors on neutrophils at the acute phase of atopic relapse. Conclusions. Atopic dermatitis patients have the higher level of PAR-2 receptor expression compared with healthy donors. Percentage of PAR-2+ neutrophils is elevated with the increasing of disease severity. Simultaneous elevation of PAR-2 receptors and HSP90 was found at the first week of acute atopic dermatitis.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):53-58
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The influence of peptide bioregulators on skin aging in 3D culture model
Kozhina K.V., Volkova E.N., Saburina I.N., Morozov S.G., Zurina I.M., Kosheleva N.V., Gorkun A.A., Grigorieva A.A.
Abstract
He effect of mesotherapy injection (Meso-Wharton R199TM) on the dermal fibroblasts culture, simulating condition of (mature) aging skin cells are studied. Material and methods. The culture of 4th passage fibroblasts (P4), that corresponds to young skin fibroblasts (control) and the culture of 18th passage fibroblasts (P18), that has all the signs of aging dermal fibroblasts (predominance of large cells, slow cell division) were used. Bioactivity was assessed by cell morphology, epithelium-mesenchyme plasticity and expression of fibroblasts markers: cytokeratin 19, elastin, a-smooth muscle actin (aSMA), PCNA (proliferation marker), collagen types I, III, IV and fibronectin. The formation of spheroids occur when fibroblasts P18 are cultivating with the injection medication, on terms comparable to the formation of spheroids from P4 young fibroblasts. From culture of fibroblasts P18, that was cultured without medication, does not form the full spheroid, but aggregation of cells and their gradual destruction with necrotic masses within the unit are observed. The presence of the medication stimulates the “rejuvenation” of cells and subsequent recovery of the mesenchyme-epithelial plasticity of cultured fibroblasts due to the reduced ability to synthesize sufficient to establish the amount of intercellular contacts the extracellular matrix components (fibronectin and collagen), which affects the ability to form spheroids. Culturing spheroids formed with the medication stimulates expression of elastin, collagen type IV, fibronectin extracellular matrix protein that supports the skin elasticity and superficial cells actively express cytokeratin 19. The study results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of mesotherapeutic treatment for skin rejuvenation.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):58-63
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Phenotypic variability of Trichomonas vaginalis as the cause of resistance to metronidazole
Syuch N.I., Machkalyan K.E., Makhneva N.V.
Abstract
The results of the study of the nitrosoguanidine mutagen effect on phenotypic variability of Trichomonas vaginalis are presented. Formation of non flagellated protozoa is detected. The relationship between torpid and difficult to treat forms of urogenital trichomoniasis with the presence of amastigote (non flagellated) forms with simple changes in the genome that have a high potential for survival is described.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):64-68
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From collection of docent G.N. Tarasenko. Clinical forms of psoriasis
Tarasenko G.N.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):69-71
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“Rakhmanov read” today and 30 years ago
Snarskaya E.S.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):72-72
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Multiple patterned rash on the glans penis
Kochergin N.G.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2016;19(1):73-74
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